- Runs. Runs are scored when the batsmen run to the opposite ends of the pitch and the bat or any part of the batsman’s body crosses the ‘popping crease’.
- Boundaries. These are marked at the edge of the playing field. If the ball crosses a ‘boundary’ then it amounts to four runs unless it cross it without bouncing once on the ground in which case it amounts to six runs. These are known as a four and a six respectively.
- Lost ball. When a ball is lost or is irretrievable, the side that bats gets any runs scored by the batting side including the run in progress when the call is made or six runs, whichever is greater. In addition to this any penalties such as a ‘Wide’ or ‘No ball’ will also be added to the runs scored.
- Results. The team that scores the most runs wins. If both sides score the same amount of runs the match is tied. Sometimes the match may not be completed within the set time limit in which case it is called a draw.
- The over. An over consists of six deliveries excluding any no balls and wides. Back to back overs are bowled from opposite ends and by different bowlers. One bowler cannot bowl two successive overs.
- Dead ball. The ball is ‘live’ as soon as the bowler begins his run up. A dead ball is when the activity of the ball has come to an end. No part of the game (scoring runs, dismissals etc.) can be performed during this state This could be due to various reasons such as the ball passing through to the keeper and the batsmen decline any attempt to run:
- The ball settling in the gloves of the keeper or in the bowler’s hands
- The scoring of a boundary
- The dismissal of one of the two batsmen
- The ball lodging in a piece of clothing or kit of the umpire or batsman irrespective of it being played or not
- The ball lodging into the helmet of a fielder
- The awarding of penalty runs
- At the end of an over or when Time is called
- When it is decided by the umpire that the players no longer regard the ball as being in a state of play
- A lost ball is called.
No ball. This results in a run immediately being awarded to the opposing team in addition to any runs scored of that delivery. A no ball can be called for many reasons such as:
- If some part of the bowler’s front foot is not behind the popping crease at the point of releasing the ball
- If the bowler’s back foot isn’t fully inside the return or side crease (see Law nine on creases).
- If the bowler bowls with an illegal bowling action; changes the arm with which he bowls, or the side he bowls from without letting the umpire know.
- Underarm bowling.
- If the ball is delivered before the bowler enters the stride from which the ball is bowled.
- The ball bouncing more than twice, or coming to rest before reaching the popping crease of the batsman on strike.
- Bowling by a fast bowler where the ball reaches the batsman full above the waist where the ball has not bounced on the pitch, or above the shoulder when it is bowled by a slow bowler.
- Balls that bounce above the shoulder level of the batsman are allowed twice per over in a test match and once per over in a limited overs match, A no ball is given each time these numbers are exceeded.
- When the wicket keeper moves in front of the wicket, or if a fielder makes contact with or passes over the pitch before the ball reaches that wicket or makes contact with the batsman.
- More than two fielders excluding the wicket keeper being present on the leg side behind the batsman’s popping crease at instance of delivery.
In ODIs if certain fielding restrictions at different stages of the match are not observed, a no ball may be given, also if there are six fielders or more on the leg side at the instance of delivery.
A batsman cannot be out caught, bowled, stumped, lbw or hit wicket when a no ball has been called; they can however, be run out, be dismissed for hitting the ball twice, obstructing the field and handling the ball.
- Wide Ball. This is when the ball passes the striker, and is too far away for the striker to hit with a normal cricket shot while the striker is in a normal guard position. A one run penalty is awarded to the batting side and the ball has to be bowled again. If the batsmen take any runs when a wide is bowled these runs are also added to the penalty and also called wides. If the ball travels to the boundary after it has been called a wide it amounts to 5 wides. Except for when the ball travels to the boundary all other instances of wides are accounted for by the bowler. When a wide is called the batsman cannot be dismissed for any other reasons except by stumping, being run out, be dismissed for hitting the ball twice, obstructing the field and handling the ball.
- Bye and Leg Bye. When a ball is neither hit nor called a wide or no ball and runs are scored, it is called a bye. If it hits any part of the batsmen other than his bat and then runs are scored it is called a leg bye, however, the umpire has to be satisfied that the batsman has either attempted to play a stroke or has attempted to avoid being hit by the ball for the leg bye to be awarded. The runs from byes or leg byes are added to the team total and not the batsman’s individual score.